Ralph Frederick Manheim (1907-1992) was an American translator of German and French literature. After graduating from Harvard, Yale and Columbia, Manheim spent time in Munich and Vienna. His first major work was translating Hitler's Mein Kampf into English with all of its grammatical errors and awkward phrasing intact. Manheim won many awards in his lifetime, including a MacArthur Foundation (1983) "genius" grant. He also received a Guggenheim Fellowship, a prize from the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters, a National Book Award and honors from PEN. The PEN/Ralph Manheim Medal for Translation is awarded to mark major lifetime achievement in the field of translation.